Electricity is one thing that is needed worldwide and as such, since it was discovered and it has been with man for decades now in which the transformer helps in playing a great role in the evolution of electricity.
In every sphere of life, light is the constant thing that is needed and this is why electricity has come to stay with us and it will remain so for a very long time.
With this, comes the need for an apparatus or an electrical machine that can help in increasing or decreasing the voltage of an alternating current so there come the TRANSFORMER.
This article is here to furnish you with all the pieces of information you need to know about this static electrical machine called the TRANSFORMER.
So if you are a novice or you want to update your knowledge on the news regarding transformer, its attribute, features, specifications and properties, you will find this article very useful.
Below are complete review on transformer and all it has to offer in the electricity industry:
What is a Transformer?
A transformer is an electrical apparatus or a static electrical machine that can help in transferring AC electrical power from one circuit to another at a static frequency.
With a transformer the voltage level can be changed hereby the voltage can be increased or decreased according to requirement.
Working Principle Of Transformer
The working principle of transformer is via mutual induction that is between two or more windings or coils which allows for electrical energy to be supplied between circuits.
This simply means that a winding or coil that is transferred by an alternating electrical source and the alternating current via the winding is producing a constant changing influx that surrounds the winding,
so if another winding is brought close to this winding a portion of this alternate flux will connect with the second winding.
Therefore, when there is a constant changing in the flux in the first winding, then the will be a changing flux connection in the second coil or winding as well.
The simplest way a transformer can be constructed maybe as a two-winding transformer is each winding been wound on a separate soft iron core or limb which supplies the necessary magnetic circuit.
This circuit is designed to give a path for the magnetic field to flow around which will be used for the induction of the voltage between the two windings.
The transformer can be constructed as the shell-core transformer or closed-core transformer.
Transformers can be classified based on its construction, uses and purpose but some do overlap- this is to say, a transformer can perform many roles at the same time a step up transformer and a three-phase transformer.
As in other electrical component, a transformer has its own parts that make up the whole structure. The different parts of the transformer are stated below:
- Insulating materials
- Tap changer
- Transformer oil
- Cooling tubes
- Buchholz relay and explosion vent
To know what the transformer is use for, the below guide is here to help you out:
- A transformer can be used to increase the low voltages at high current; this is mostly done with a step up transformer.
- It can be used to decrease high AC voltages at low current. The step down transformer is mostly used for this
- It is also valuable for electric power applications.
- It can be used for coupling the stages of signal processing circuits
- Transformers are useful for transmission network
- It can be used for electricity generation
- It is use to increasing the bandwidth of electricity supply in an environment.
- A transformer helps in proper electric distribution and set up.
Types Of Transformers
There are different types of transformer and as such, have different purposes. Below are the types of transformers you should know:
- The step up transformers
- The step down transformers
- Single phase transformer
- The three phase transformer
- Electrical power transformer
- Distribution transformer
- Instrument transformer
- Two winding transformer
- Outdoor transformer
- Indoor transformers
- Oil cooled and dry type transformer
- Core type transformer
- Shell type transformer
- Berry type transformer and so on
The man function of the transformer is to convert alternating current from one voltage to another. This can be achieved with the aid of a step up or step down voltages transformer. All of this works on the magnetic induction principle.
The price of a transformer is based on different factors like its brand name, KVA capacity and phases. But from our findings the price of a good transformer in naira range from N1,300,000,000 – N5,000,000 and above depending on some factors.
How Many Phases Does A Transformer Have?
A transformer can be a single phase or a three phase transformer. The former is for light load while the latter is for heavy load.
What Are The Transformer Parameters?
The parameters of a transformer include the following:
- The transformer type
- The KVA rating
- Weight and mass
- Input voltage range
- Short circuit or fault current rating
Why Are Transformers Needed?
- A transformer is needed when there’s need for supply voltage to a load which needs large more current
- It is also needed after power generation, to boost the voltage from a few thousand to hundreds of thousands for the sole aim of long-distance transmission.
- It is the cheapest way to transfer electrical energy to alternating form when needed
- It is needed when electrical needs to be transferred from a part of a circuit to another part to help keep them insulated from one another
- It is also needed when power and its frequency needs to be kept constant.
Common Efficiencies For Transformer
Efficiency of transformer which can be described as the output power divided by the input power has about four common efficiencies for transformer. There are as follows:
- The ordinary efficiency: This is the ratio of output power to input power
- The all day efficiency: This is used for the measurement of efficiency of distribution transformer.
- Full load efficiency: This is the arithmetic mean of the full load efficiencies of the population of electric motors of duplicate design. Full load efficiency is between 95% and 98.5%
- No load efficiency: No load efficiency happens when the current needed to energize the core of the transformer do not vary.
The transformer is one passive electrical device that is valuable to the world at large, since it is what helps in supplying electrical energy from one circuit to another.
This post has outlined all that you need to know about this device that is good at stepping up and stepping down the voltage when needed.